MKaplan writes "Most spam is sent using spoofed domains. Email authentication schemes such as SPF attempt to foil spoofing by having domain administrators publish a list of their approved outgoing mail servers. SPF is sharply limited by incomplete domain participation and failure to authenticate forwarded email. A paper describes a novel method to rapidly generate a near-perfect global SPF database independent of the participation of domain administrators. A single email from an unauthenticated domain is bounced and then resent — this previously unauthenticated domain and the server listed in the return path of the resent bounce are entered into a globally accessible database. All future emails sent from this domain via this server will be authenticated after checking this new database. Mechanisms to authenticate forwarded email and to nullify subversion of this anti-spam system are also described."